• Radiculopathy refers to pain from a single spinal nerve. Pain that travels down the arm may often be from a problem in the neck or cervical spine.

  • Chronic pain is a very complex diagnosis and may be a result of many things. Complex pain may result from peripheral neuropathy, fibromyalgia, failed operations, trauma, or other conditions.

  • A normal spinal vertebral body (the body is the front half of the vertebra) is rectangular. A compression fracture of the spine occurs when the front (or anterior) wall of the vertebra fractures.

  • Degenerative disc disease is also known as spondylosis as the discs wear out. As the discs lose water and wear out, they lead to abnormal alignment of the spinal joints, and osteoarthritis is the result.

  • The disc wall is normally made of circular fibers that contain the jelly-like substance (nucleus) on the inside. As we age, the fibers of the disc wall may lose flexibility and even tear.

  • This condition is a deformity of the spine. With it, your vertebrae change from a cylindrical shape to a wedge shape. Your spine may begin to curve forward. Eventually, this gives your upper back a rounded appearance.

  • Osteoporosis is a diagnosis of very low bone density. Patients with osteoporosis are at risk for broken bones, with potentially serious consequences.

  • The sacroiliac joint (or SI joint) is the joint between the sacrum (the bottom vertebrae in the spine) and the pelvis (specifically, the ilium bone).

  • Radiculopathy is pain from any spinal nerve. It is often called referred pain, and it may affect the entire course of the nerve's path.

  • Scoliosis is an abnormal curvature in the spine to one side. This causes the spine to appear shaped like the letter "C."

  • Central stenosis or spinal stenosis refers to a narrowing of the spinal canal (central passage for spinal cord and nerves).

  • This condition is a narrowing of the spinal canal that results from the degeneration of bones, discs, or joints in the cervical spine.

  • Spondylosis is a broad term referring to wear and tear of the spine. Spondylolisthesis refers to a misalignment of one vertebra on top of another.

  • Whiplash is an injury that occurs after a sudden forceful movement to the neck.